Senin, 24 Desember 2012

Kamis, 20 Desember 2012

Mayan Pyramids

The Maya are a people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador) with some 3,000 years of history. Archaeological evidence shows the Maya started to build ceremonial architecture approximately 3,000 years ago. 

The earliest monuments consisted of simple burial mounds, the precursors to the spectacular stepped pyramids from the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond. These pyramids relied on intricate carved stone in order to create a stair-stepped design. Many of these structures featured a top platform upon which a smaller dedicatory building was constructed, associated with a particular Maya deity. 

Maya pyramid-like structures were also erected to serve as a place of interment for powerful rulers. Maya pyramid structures occur in a great variety of forms and functions, bounded by regional and period differences. The complexity of their celestial alignments, structure and design baffle archaeologists to this day.
The Great Pyramid of Cholula

The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for "artificial mountain"), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and is the world's largest monument as well as the largest pyramid by volume.
The temple-pyramid complex was built in four stages, starting from the 3rd century BCE through the 9th century CE, and was dedicated to the deity Quetzalcoatl. It has a base of 450 by 450 m (1476x1476 ft) and a height of 66 m (217 ft). According to the Guinness Book of Records, it is in fact the largest pyramid as well as the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, with a total volume estimated at over 4.45 million m3, even larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt which is about 2.5 million m3. However the Great Pyramid of Giza is higher at 138.8 m (455 feet). The Aztecs believed that Xelhua built the Great Pyramid of Cholula.

Today the pyramid at first appears to be a natural hill surmounted by a church. This is the Iglesia de Nuestra Se–ora de los Remedios (Church of Our Lady of the Remedies), also known as the Santuario de la Virgen de los Remedios (Sanctuary of the Virgin of the Remedies), which was built by the Spanish in colonial times (1594) on the site of a pre-Hispanic temple. The church is a major Catholic pilgrimage destination, and the site is also used for the celebration of indigenous rites. Many ancient sites in Latin America are found under modern Catholic holy sites, due to the practice of the Catholic Church repurposing local religious sites.

Because of the historic and religious significance of the church, which is a designated colonial monument, the pyramid as a whole has not been excavated and restored, as have the smaller but better-known pyramids at Teotihuacan. Inside the pyramid are some five miles (8 km) of tunnels excavated by archaeologists.

Chichen Itza

One of the most famous pyramid sites can be found at Chichen Itza, its name meaning "At the mouth of the well of the Itza (people)". Although this was the name for the site in pre-Columbian times, it is also referred to in the ancient chronicles as Uucyabnal, meaning "Seven Great Rulers". It is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization located in the northern center of the Yucatan Peninsula, in the Yucatan state, present-day Mexico. Chichen Itza contains many fine stone buildings in various states of preservation; the buildings were formerly used as temples, palaces, stages, markets, baths, and ball courts.
El Castillo - Temple of Kukulkan
Dominating the center of Chichen is the Temple of Kukulkan (the Maya name for Quetzalcoatl), often referred to as "El Castillo" (the castle). This step pyramid has a ground plan of square terraces with stairways up each of the four sides to the temple on top.
On the Spring and Autumn equinox, at the rising and setting of the sun, the corner of the structure casts a shadow in the shape of a plumed serpent - Kukulcan, or Quetzalcoatl - along the west side of the north staircase. On these two annual occasions, the shadows from the corner tiers slither down the northern side of the pyramid with the sun's movement to the serpent's head at the base.
Mesoamerican cultures periodically built larger pyramids atop older ones, and this is one such example. In the mid 1930s, the Mexican government sponsored an excavation of El Castillo. After several false starts, they discovered a staircase under the north side of the pyramid.
By digging from the top, they found another temple buried below the current one. Inside the temple chamber was a Chac Mool - a human figure in a position of reclining with the head up and turned to one side, holding a tray over the stomach.

The Quetzal
A Mayan glyph shows Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl the
plumed serpent with a gigantic Quetzal bird behind him.

The Quetzal has represented the Spirit of the Maya for thousands of years. Spirits, in many traditions, speak in echoes, lacking a body, just pure frequency and sound. Handclaps evoke chirped echoes from the staircases of the Pyramid of Kukulkan. The physics of the chirped echo can be explained quite simply as periodic reflections from stepfaces. The chirped-echo sounds much like the primary call of the Mayan sacred bird, the resplendent Quetzal. The sounds perhaps trigger something with the subconscious of the person listening as harmonics are linked to creation. Throughout the world, ancient cathedrals and monuments have been acoustically designed to align with the sacred geometry of human consciousness, igniting when accessed. Could the Maya have intentionally coded the sound of their sacred bird into the pyramid architecture?
The dimensions of the steps are the key to the effect. Each step is tall, but the tread, where the foot is placed, doesn't cut deeply into the pyramid. If the stairs were deeper and not so high, the effect on the echoes would not be as great, and they wouldn't sound like a chirp.
In the millennium since this pyramid was built, though the plaster has eroded from the limestone staircases, the sound is still recognizable. Today the Quetzal still plays an important role in modern Mayan culture. The Quetzal is the unit of currency in Guatemala. The Guatemalan government issues a prestigious award named "The Order of the Quetzal."

Language of the Birds - God Language

Temple of the Tables
To the east of El Castillo are a series of buildings, the northernmost is the Temple of the Tables. Its name comes from a series of altars at the top of the structure that are supported by small carved figures of men with upraised arms, called Atlantes.

The Great Ball Court

Stone Ring located 9 m (30 ft) above the floor of the Great Ballcourt, Chichen Itza
Archaeologists have identified several courts for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame in Chich┼Żn, but the Great Ball Court about 150 metres (490 ft) to the north-west of the Castillo is by far the most impressive. It is the largest ball court in ancient Mesoamerica. It measures 166 by 68 metres (540 ft x 220 ft). The imposing walls are 12 metres (39 ft) high, and in the center, high up on each of the long walls, are rings carved with intertwining serpents.
At the base of the high interior walls are slanted benches with sculpted panels of teams of ball players. In one panel, one of the players has been decapitated and from the wound emits seven streams of blood; six become wriggling serpents and the center becomes a winding plant.

Temple of the Bearded Man
At one end of the Great Ball Court is the North Temple, popularly called the Temple of the Bearded Man. This small masonry building has detailed bas relief carving on the inner walls, including a center figure that has carving under his chin that resembles facial hair. At the south end is another, much bigger temple, but in ruins.

Temple of the Jaguar
Built into the east wall are the Temple of the Jaguar. The Upper Temple of the Jaguar overlooks the ball court and has an entrance guarded by two, large columns carved in the familiar feathered serpent motif. Inside there is a large mural, much destroyed, which depicts a battle scene.
The Temple of the Jaguar features a jaguar throne with red paint and jade spots. Behind this platform is a walled inscription which depicts a relief of Tzompantli - a low, flat platform surrounded with carved depictions of human skulls. A doorway at the base of the north stairway leads to a tunnel, from which one can climb the steps of the earlier version of El Castillo inside the current one, up to the room on the top where you can see King Kukulcan's Jaguar Throne, carved of stone and painted red with spots made of inlaid jade.
In the entrance to the Lower Temple of the Jaguar, which opens behind the ball court, is another Jaguar throne, similar to the one in the inner temple of El Castillo, except that it is well worn and missing paint or other decoration. The outer columns and the walls inside the temple are covered with elaborate bas-relief carvings.

Temple of a Thousand Warriors
The 'Temple of the Warriors' and its adjacent 'Temple of the Jaguar' are very impressive ruins of the complex. A massive temple structure, surrounded by hundreds of columns is carved with reliefs. The columns continue on into the jungle, that part of the temple still has not been restored.
The Temple of the Warriors complex consists of a large stepped pyramid fronted and flanked by rows of carved columns depicting warriors. This complex is analogous to Temple B at the Toltec capital of Tula, and indicates some form of cultural contact between the two regions. The one at Chichen Itza, however, was constructed on a larger scale.
At the top of the stairway on the pyramid's summit (and leading towards the entrance of the pyramid's temple) is a Chac Mool. This temple encases or entombs a former structure called The Temple of the Chac Mool.
Along the south wall of the Temple of Warriors are a series of what are today exposed columns, although when the city was inhabited these would have supported an extensive roof system. The columns are in three distinct sections: an east group, that extends the lines of the front of the Temple of Warriors; a north group, which runs along the south wall of the Temple of Warriors and contains pillars with carvings of soldiers in bas-relief; and a northeast group, which was apparently formed a small temple at the southeast corner of the Temple of Warriors, which contains a rectangular decorated with carvings of people or gods, as well as animals and serpents. The northeast column temple also covers a small marvel of engineering, a channel that funnels all the rainwater from the complex some 40 metres (130 ft) away to a rejollada, a former cenote.

The Observatory
To the north of Las Monjas is a cockeyed, round building on a large square platform. It's nicknamed El Caracol ("the snail") because of the stone spiral staircase inside. The structure with its unusual placement on the platform and its round shape (the others are rectangular, in keeping with Maya practice), is theorized to have been a proto-observatory with doors and windows aligned to astronomical events, specifically around the path of Venus as it traverses the heavens.

Pyramids of the Sun and Moon in Teotihuacan

City Plan
Teotihuacan was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. The city during its existence was larger than any European city of the same era, possibly including Rome. The civilization and cultural complex associated with the site is also referred to as Teotihuacan. Its influence spread throughout Mesoamerica; evidence of Teotihuacano presence, if not outright political and economic control, can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region. The city was located in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacan municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, approximately 40 km (24.8 mi) northeast of Mexico City. It covers a total surface area of 83 kms and was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. 

The early history of Teotihuacan is quite mysterious, and the origin of its founders is debated. For many years, archaeologists believed it was built by the Toltec. This belief was based on colonial period texts such as the Florentine Codex which attributed the site to the Toltecs. However, the Nahuatl word "Toltec" generally means "craftsman of the highest level" and may not always refer to the archaeological Toltec civilization centered at Tula, Hidalgo. Since Toltec civilization flourished centuries after Teotihuacan, they cannot be understood as the city's founders.

In the Late Formative period, a number of urban centers arose in central Mexico. The most prominent of these appears to have been Cuicuilco, on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco. Scholars have speculated that the eruption of the Xitle volcano may have prompted a mass emigration out of the central valley and into the Teotihuacan valley. These settlers may have founded and/or accelerated the growth of Teotihuacan.
Other scholars have put forth the Totonac people as the founders of Teotihuacan, and the debate continues to this day. There is evidence that at least some of the people living in Teotihuacan came from areas influenced by the Tiwanaku Civilization, including the Zapotec, Mixtec and Maya peoples.

Sun Gate of Tiwanaku
The culture and architecture of Teotihuacan was influenced by the Olmec Civilization,

who are considered to be the Mother Civilization of Mesoamerica.

The Pyramid of the Sun
The earliest buildings at Teotihuacan date to about 200 BCE. The Pyramid of the Sun, was completed by 100 BCE. It is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica. Found along the Avenue of the Dead, in between the Pyramid of the Moon and the Ciudadela, and in the shadow of the massive mountain Cerro Gordo, the pyramid is part of a large complex in the heart of the city.

The name "Pyramid of the Sun" comes from the Aztecs, who visited the city of Teotihuacan centuries after it was abandoned; the name given to the pyramid by the Teotihuacanos. It was constructed in two phases. The first construction stage, around 100 A.D., brought the pyramid to nearly the size it is today.
The second round of construction resulted in its completed size of 738 feet (225 meters) across and 246 feet (75 meters) high, making it the third largest pyramid in the world behind the Great Pyramid of Cholula and The Great Pyramid.
The second phase also saw the construction of an altar atop of the pyramid, which has not survived into modern times. The Adosada platform was added to the pyramid in the early third century, at around the same time that the Ciudadela and Temple of the Feathered Serpent, (see below) Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent were constructed.

Over the structure the ancient Teotihuacanos finished their pyramid with lime plaster imported from surrounding areas, on which they painted brilliantly colored murals. While the pyramid has endured for centuries, the paint and plaster have not and are no longer visible. Few images are thought to have been included in the mural decorations on the sides of the pyramid. Jaguar heads and paws, stars, and snake rattles are among the few images associated with the pyramids.

It is thought that the pyramid venerated a deity within Teotihuacan society but the destruction of the temple on top of the pyramid, by both deliberate and natural forces prior to the archaeological study of the site, has so far prevented identification of the pyramid with any particular deity. Some scholars have suggested that the deity of the pyramid was the Great Goddess, one of two major Teotihuacan deities and one of the few goddesses in ancient Mesoamerica. However, little evidence exists to support this theory. 

Modern investigations
The first major archaeological excavation of the site was done by Leopoldo Batres in 1906. Batres supervised restoration of the Pyramid for the 1910 centennial of Mexican independence. Some aspects of Batres' reconstruction of the pyramid have been questioned by later archaeologists. Subsequent excavations of Teotihuacan have continued to the present. In 1925 Pedro Dosal discovered skeletons at the 4 corners of the foundations of the temple, which he interpreted as human sacrifices at the dedication of the temple.

Structure location and orientation
The orientation of the structure may hold some anthropological significance. The pyramid is oriented slightly northwest of the horizon point of the setting sun on two days a year, August 12 and April 29, which are about one divinatory calendar year apart for the Teotihuacanos. The day of August 12 is significant because it would have marked the date of the beginning of the present era and the initial day of the Maya long count calendar. In addition, many important astrological events can be viewed from the location of the pyramid that are important in terms of both agriculture and belief systems of the ancient society.
The pyramid was built over a man-made tunnel leading to a "cave" located six meters down beneath the center of the structure. Originally this was believed to be a naturally formed lava tube cave and interpreted as possibly the place of Chicomoztoc, the place of human origin according to Nahua legends. More recent excavations have suggested that the space is man-made instead, and could have served as a royal tomb. In 2008 scientists used muon detectors to try to find other chambers within the interior of the pyramid, but substantial looting has prevented the discovery of a function for the chambers in Teotihuacan society.
Recovered artifacts
Only a few caches of artifacts have been found in and around the pyramid. Obsidian arrowheads and human figurines have been discovered inside the pyramid and similar objects have been found at the nearby Pyramid of the Moon and Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent in the Ciudadela. These objects may have represented sacrificial victims. In addition, burial sites of children have been found in excavations at the corners of the pyramid. It is believed that these burials were part of a sacrificial ritual dedicating the building of the pyramid.

Original offering found at Teotihuacan pyramid   PhysOrg - December 14, 2011
Archaeologists announced Tuesday that they dug to the very core of Mexico's tallest pyramid and found what may be the original ceremonial offering placed on the site of the Pyramid of the Sun before construction began. The offerings found at the base of the pyramid in the Teotihuacan ruin site just north of Mexico City include a green serpentine stone mask so delicately carved and detailed that archaeologists believe it may have been a portrait. The find also includes 11 ceremonial clay pots dedicated to a rain god similar to Tlaloc, who was still worshipped in the area 1,500 years later, according to a statement by the National Institute of Anthropology and History, or INAH.

Story 2: Ancient Offering Discovered Beneath Pyramid of the Sun   Live Science - December 15, 2011

Archaeologists in Mexico have uncovered a small treasure trove of items that may have been placed as offerings to mark the start of construction on the Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Sun almost 2,000 years ago. The offerings include pieces of obsidian and pottery as well as animal remains. Perhaps most striking are three human figurines made out of a green stone, one of which is a serpentine mask that researchers think may have been a portrait.
17 Images of the Excavation Site

The location of the excavation site between the Feathered Serpent Temple and the platform in front of it (Structure IC).

Vertical shaft in front of the Feathered Serpent Temple.

Kamis, 16 Agustus 2012

Macam Bentuk Ketupat

Ketupat adalah makanan populer Indonesia dengan bahan dasar beras yang direbus matang di dalam selongsong anyaman daun kelapa muda atau janur. Tidak semua orang dapat membuat selongsong ketupat, karena diperlukan ketrampilan dan pengalaman tersendiri. 

Mungkin Anda hanya mengenal beberapa jenis bentuk ketupat saja yang biasa dinikmati ketika Lebaran. Ada beberapa ketupat untuk hiasan dalam bentuk yang menarik seperti Ketupat Bentuk Lontong, Ketupat Bentuk Balok, Ketupat Lebaran, Ketupat Tabung/Guling, Ketupat Dada Ayam, Ketupat Kodok, Ketupat Kapak, Ketupat Bantal, Ketupat Sudut Tidak Beraturan, Ketupat Sudut Lancip, Ketupat Patung Hewan, Ketupat Sudut Tumpul, Ketupat Model Saku, Ketupat Bentuk Bintang, Ketupat Bentuk Unggas, dan Ketupat Bentuk Nanas.

Bentuk Kubus
Ketupat Sate
Ketupat Burung
Ketupat Pedal
Ketupat Kucing

Ketupat Siput
Ketupat Jantung Hati
Ketupat Bebek
Ketupat Ikan

Rabu, 13 Juni 2012

Mensiasati Rumah Type 33

Tak jarang, terbatasnya luas rumah type 33 justru menantang pemilik rumah mendesain hunian mungilnya secara lebih kreatif. Hingga kini rumah bercorak modern minimalis masih digemari masyarakat. Rumah seperti ini menjadi jawaban atas kebutuhan masyarakat yang menginginkan rumah yang simpel namun fungsinya bisa maksimal. Selain itu, rumah modern minimalis juga menjadi solusi atas terbatasnya lahan, utamanya di kota-kota besar. Dengan corak rumah seperti ini, maka fungsi ruang bisa dimaksimalkan.
Namun rumah berciri modern minimalis membutuhkan sentuhan dan penataan yang berbeda, terutama dalam hal perencanaan dan penataan interior disain. Ini penting agar kesan lapang masih tetap bisa dirasakan meskipun luas ruangan terbatas.
Ada banyak cara menyiasati desain rumah mungil, tapi setidaknya beberapa poin berikut ini penting dijadikan pegangan untuk Anda.

Dimensi atau ukuran adalah hal pertama yang terpikirkan saat menata rumah mungil. Antara ukuran dan besaran furnitur harus disesuaikan dengan ruang.
Selain harus proporsional, furnitur sebaiknya disesuaikan dengan jumlah penghuni. Pemilihan furnitur tepat akan menciptakan ruang lapang beserta sirkulasi udara yang baik.
Dalam memanfaatkan ukuran, pertimbangkan secara optimal setiap jengkalnya. Jangan sampai Anda membuat ruang dengan potensi menjadi sudut mati dan tempat tumpukan barang.
Untuk menyiasati masalah seperti ini, buatlah furnitur built in dengan ukuran pas dan sesuai dengan spot-spot dalam rumah.


Tatanan ruang paling tepat untuk rumah mungil adalah simpel, minimalis, minim corak, dan dibalut warna terang. Pilihan ini akan memberi kesan lapang pada hunian.
Pilihlah warna-warna terang seperti putih dan pastel untuk bidang-bidang besar seperti lantai, dinding, plafon, serta furnitur utama. Kombinasi banyak warna sebaiknya Anda hindari, tetapi gunakan sedikit aksen untuk mempermanis ruangan.
Menghadirkan dekorasi dinding dalam corak ramai, furnitur masif, serta penggunaan warna gelap membawa kesan sesak pada ruangan. Menghadirkan tatanan interior mewah dan elegan untuk rumah mungil bukanlah hal bijak, karena hal itu justru akan memberi kesan ruangan semakin sumpek.

Tanpa sekat
Dalam sebuah rumah mungil, ada baiknya Anda mengurangi aplikasi dinding atau partisi masif sebagai pembatas dan pemisah ruang. Sebaiknya, rancanglah layout ruang dengan pendekatan open plan atau tanpa sekat. Cara ini akan menciptakan kesan ruangan lebih luas daripada ukuran sebenarnya.
Pemisahan ruangan dengan konsep tanpa sekat bisa dilakukan dengan cara menciptakan zona pada area berbeda. Konsep tanpa sekat ini bisa memberi keleluasaan pada fungsi ruang serta menciptakan rasa ruang lebih luas secara visual. Jika diperlukan, ruang tetap dapat diberi pembatas, misalnya partisi kaca tembus pandang atau rak buku.

Manipulasi ruang
Dengan menggunakan beberapa teknik pendekatan desain, Anda dapat memanipulasi ruang di dalam rumah mungil menjadi lebih besar, lebih tinggi atau lebih lebar. Caranya adalah memanfaatkan ruang luar sebagai bagian dari interior ruang, atau memanfaatkan teras belakang rumah sebagai area perluasan ruang makan atau ruang keluarga Anda.

Alternatif cara lainnya adalah menggunakan kaca sebagai pembatas ruang yang menghadap ke area luar. Hal ini akan menciptakan perluasan ruang secara visual.
Anda juga dapat memanfaatkan bidang refleksi seperti cermin untuk menghadirkan kesan ruangan lebih luas. Sekecil apapun bidang refleksi, pantulan yang tercipta akan menambah volume ruang dalam tampilan visual.

Efisien dan fleksibel
Salah satu keberhasilan merancang rumah mungil adalah dengan meningkatkan efisiensi ruang. Caranya, pertimbangkan aspek fleksibilitas kala merancang fungsi ruang. Terapkan konsep ruang bersama atau multifungsi untuk memenuhi fleksibilitas ruang tersebut.
Penggunaan furnitur sebaiknya didesain sesuai kebutuhan Anda serta harus diperlakukan sebagai elemen penting dalam desain. Penggunaan konsep furnitur multifungsi merupakan solusi cermat untuk menghemat tempat sekaligus area penyimpanan. Tempat penyimpanan bisa terintegrasi dengan tempat duduk, sofa, bed, bahkan tangga.

Faktor cahaya, terutama cahaya matahari, merupakan elemen penting untuk rumah berukuran mungil. Bukaan sekecil apapun akan besar pengaruhnya bagi rumah mungil. Untuk itu, manfaatkan keberadaan jendela dan skylight untuk memasukkan cahaya matahari ke dalam ruangan secara maksimal.
Namun demikian, Anda patut memperhatikan bentuk, jenis, serta ukuran jendela. Bidang bukaan besar akan memberi rasa ruangan lebih luas dari kondisi sebenarnya.
Selain matahari, penerangan buatan juga penting untuk menciptakan penataan yang cermat. Dalam menciptakan pencahayaan buatan, Anda harus menyesuaikannya secara efisiensi dan jenis lampunya.

Bagaimana menyiasati dekorasi ruangan rumah mungil ? Seorang ahli dekorasi ruang pernah memberi tips menarik. Katanya, memiliki rumah mungil tidak harus membuat pemiliknya menghilangkan keinginan untuk membeli furnitur, karena dianggap akan mempersempit rumah.
Ada beberapa cara untuk menyiasati rumah mungil bisa tetap tampil gaya. Salah satunya dengan cara memaksimalkan fungsi furnitur di dalam rumah. Artinya, Anda disarankan untuk memilih furnitur yang bisa digunakan untuk beragam keperluan. Untuk mengatasi kendala ini, partisi adalah salah satu jawabannya. Partisi bisa berupa lemari atau rak sebagai pembatas ruangan. Dalam hal ini partisi mempunyai banyak fungsi selain sebagai penghalang pandangan dari ruang tamu ke ruang makan.
Partisi bisa terbuat dari tripleks yang diberi pelapis dipadukan dengan kaca motif impor berkombinasi warna gelap dan cokelat muda. Ini sangat selaras dengan cat rumah yang berwarna kuning gading. Di bagian lain, partisi akan berfungsi sebagai lemari, rak televisi dan rak panjang.
Di bawah televisi, bagian dari partisi dapat digunakan sebagai lemari penyimpan koleksi compact disc.

Pilihan furnitur perlu dipilih yang berpengaruh kuat pada sentuhan estika yang memberikan kesan lapang, nyaman dan ergodinamik
  1. Pilihlah warna-warna yang terang dan jangan sekali-kali memilih warga gelap karena akan membuat ruangan tampak semakin sempit.
  2. Pilih Furnitur yang simple dan berkesan tidak padat, misalnya pilih lampu gantung vertikal, furnitur yang berkaki tinggi, dll.
  3. Pilihlah furnitur yang memiliki tulang tipis dan memiliki desain simple yang senada dengan karakter rumah.
  4. Manfaatkan setiap detil ruangan seperti bawah tangga, lorong, kolong tempat tidur maupun lemari. Sebaiknya pilih lemari dengan bukaan geser agar tidak makan ruangan.
    Jika suka akan tanaman, pilihlah tanaman yang simple dan isahakan yang memiliki batang yang tipis.
    Pilihlah perabot rumah yang memiliki daya guna multifungsi dan sesuaikan dengan kebutuhan.
    Letakkan perabot-perabot yang agak keras di sudut-sudut ruangan agar jarak pandang terlihat luas.
 Enno Graha Artha